BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

International workshop with the topic “Sustainable Development in the Field of Solid Waste Management”

BASWA International Workshop on Waste Management
September 2015

Bosnian Solid Waste Association (BASWA) organized, in the period 21/21 of September, with technical and financial support of ISWA-RDN, an international workshop with the topic “Sustainable Development in the Field of Solid Waste Management”.

The workshop was attended by:

  •   Members of BASWA;
  •   Representatives from central administration of BiH (Ms. Svjetlana Radusin, Assistant Minister, Ministry of Spatial Planning, Civil Engineering and Ecology and Mr. Srdjan Todorovic, Director, Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund of the Republic of Srpska);
  •   ISWA Board member and representative of RDN, Mr. Alexei Atudorei;
  •   Representatives of ISWA National Members from Serbia (SeSWA, Mr. Goran Vujic) and Croatia (HUGO, Mr. Danko Fundurulja);
  •   Representatives of companies and entities involved in waste management projects in BiH (GIZ Germany, Geom Ciro Friscoli Italy, KLARWIN Romania, EKOPAK BiH, Dume Trade Croatia, MZ Consulting and Fairs Slovenia, GT-Trade Croatia, ROTREAT Austria, SZKHT Hungary, aso).

 

The main topics analyzed were focused in the activities from Eastern Europe:

  •   Implementation of EU legislation on waste management;
  •   Issues and solutions for implementation of Best Available Technologies on waste management;
  •   Extended Producer Responsibility for packaging waste and Best Practices for separate collection, sorting and recovery of used packaging;
  •   Funds for implementation of integrated waste management;
  •   Sustainability of municipal waste management systems.

 

Mr. Dragisa Marjanovic, President of BASWA, open the workshop works and emphasized that in Eastern Europe some of the waste management issues are the same:

  •   Insufficient coverage of waste collection;
  •   Utility companies and regional landfill are under credit debt - inability to invest;
  •   Low prices for communal services;
  •   Low awareness of citizens concerning SWM.

 

Companies from Eastern Europe are active and cooperate in the region in the activities of consultancy and design (IPZ Uniprojekt Croatia) and technologies for leachage and landfill gas treatment (KLARWIN Romania) with very good results for all the beneficiaries (private and public companies involved in implementation and operation of integrated weaste management systems). Companies from Eastern Europe, as is Geom Ciro Friscoli Italy, presented new technologies that could be implemented in the region.

Company’s patented “landfill retaining structures” for volumetric recover of active or exhausted landfills has been presented at the workshop.

The technology is very important and applicable as far that in the cases where there is no surface to extend the landfill, the recoverable volume can increase with 40% and 80% of the effectively authorized volume. Manfredonia landfill near Foggia, Italy, is a very good example for the efficiency of the patent.

All the presentations were very important and appreciated by all the participants, more than 80 people from BiH, Austria, Croatia, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Serbia and Slovenia.

Bijeljina Regional Center for Waste Management

WASTE MANAGEMENT IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Dragisa Marjanovic, President of BASWA, BiH

BiH - BASIC INFORMATION

  •   Total size: 51.209,2 km² (land: 51 197 km² and sea: 12,2 km²)
  •   Population: 3.791.662 (Census 2013)
  •   GDP per capita: 6. 862 KM (2013)/ 1 Euro= 1,98 KM
  •   Average net salary: 830 KM (2015)
  •   Administrative divisions: two entities - Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) and Republic of Srpska (RS) and Brčko District.
  •   Structure of FBiH: administratively divided into 10 cantons. Cantons are divided into municipalities. There are 79 municipalities In FBiH.
  •   Republic of Srpska is administratively divided into 62 municipalities.
  •   The city of Brčko is a separate administrative unit - district.

 

LEGISLATION
BiH recently adopted basic laws that are directly related to the environmental protection and SWM:

  •   Law on Environmental Protection of FBiH (Off. Gazette FBiH, No. 33/03, 38/09)
  •   Law on Environmental Protection of RS (Off. Gazette RS 71/12)
  •   Law on Waste Management (Off. Gazette FBiH No. 33/03, 72/09)
  •   Law on Waste Management (Off. Gazette RS 111/13)
  •   The above named legislation of FBiH is harmonized with the Strategy on Environmental Protection of FBiH, 2008 - 2018, defining important parameters for SWM: waste recycling, separation of biodegradable waste, treatment of waste, etc.
  •   Strategy on Environmental Protection of RS is currently under creation. In addition to this legislation, there are other important laws, especially:
  •   Law on Spatial Planning and Land Use, as well as
  •   Law on Water Management

 

PROJECTS
First SWM Project in BiH is co financed by WORLD BANK and the implementation has started with the purpose for:

  •   Creating regions in BiH;
  •   Construction of regional landfills;
  •   The introduction of private utility companies in the sector of waste management;
  •   Separation of activities of waste collection and waste disposal.

Loan funds are alocated for:
WASTE MANAGEMENT

  •   Rehabilitation of existing landfills
  •   Closure of uncontrolled landfills
  •   Improvement of infrastructure and purchase of equipment for waste collection
  •   Transformation of small landfills into transfer stations
  •   Providing support for advanced dumps in sorting, recycling, the exploitation of gas and pretreatment of waste

CAPACITY BUILDING

  •   Technical support and engineering services
  •   Institutional strengthening of the entities involved in the construction of SWM system
  •   Preparation of feasibility studies
  •   Financial, environmental and social assessments of landfill sites

 

IMPORTANT REGIONAL PROJECTS

  •   Bijeljina Regional Center for Waste Management
  •   REGION OF MOSTAR – Landfill “Uborak”. Supsidijary credit agreement and IDA funds. The works were finalized on 2013.
  •   REGION OF ZENICA – Landfill “Moscanica”

During the first phase of construction (2003 – 2009) the sanitary landfill was constructed. The size of investment was 6.5 million Euro. The second phase of construction is ongoing and the size of investment is 1.5 million EUR – IBRD loan, for remediation of existing unsanitary landfill.

 

 

OTHER ACTIVITIES

SIDA PROJECT
The Swedish Government has allocated funds in amount of 10 million EUR for BiH.
The aim of the project was improvement of the system for waste collection and treatment on landfills and the project is finished.
Also, implementation of public awareness-raising campaign on solid waste management at the state level was successfully completed.
SIDA Project was support to World Bank Second Solid Waste Management Project in BiH and the funds were used for technical equipping of regional sanitary landfills and utility companies for waste collection within regions.

 

EVALUATION OF ESTABLISHING SWM SYSTEM IN BiH
Problems of SWM development in BiH are mainly: administrative, legal, economic and technical problems and it can be concluded that the process of construction of regional landfills, establishment of new regions and the establishment of integrated SWM was slow, because:

  •   Political decision on joining the Second SWM Project were not adopted timely, in spite of the fact that all preparatory activities have been finished on time;
  •   The bank guarantees on loans were not prepared on time by municipalities involved in the project;
  •   Not reached political agreement on forming a joint regional landfill in the areas of inter-entity lines, which would be economically and territorially the most rational solutions;
  •   The World Bank withdrew 5 million EUR in the Republic of Srpska and did not engage 1 million EUR in FBiH due to the problems of implementation of the project.

 

FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY OF REGIONAL LANDFILLS AND WASTE MANAGEMENT COMPANIES
There are important issues that have direct influence on a financial sustainability of regional landfills and waste management companies:

  •   Investments for construction of regional landfills were mainly from credit and loan funds;
  •   High operation costs of regional landfills;
  •   Insufficient amounts of waste for disposal on regional landfills;
  •   High distance between municipalities within a region and small number of inhabitants;
  •   Low price for communal services of collection and disposal;
  •   Waste tariffs were not determined fairly;
  •   Municipalities are authorized to issue approval for prices for communal services;
  •   Lack of mechanisms to force users to pay fees for the services performed;
  •   Low income is a result of small amounts of waste and low price for communal service.

Waste recycling rate is very low and problems are related with:

  •   Insufficient separation of waste;
  •   Low awareness of citizens concerning separate collection of packaging waste;
  •   The private sector is partly dealing with the separation of raw materials at the moment (PET, nylon, tires, steel, paper, ...);
  •   Less than 5% of all types of waste (hazardous and non-hazardous) are recycled in BiH;
  •   Public utility companies and private utility companies who collect waste do not invest significantly in the field of waste separation and recycling.

 

SOLUTIONS AND FURTHER DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT
Important for the future improvements of present situation are represented by:

  •   Policy change;
  •   Establishing proper tariffs for collection and disposal of waste and a new fee collection system;
  •   Complete coverage of waste collection within a municipality.

Above mentioned solutions should provide proper waste tariffs for collection and disposal of waste, as well as the proper fee collection system, in order to ensure the financial sustainability of companies involved in SWM.
The final aim is to permanently provide a system which is resistant to political changes within institutions in charge and permanent sustainability.
The necessary actions are:

  •   Adoption of accurate legislation and prompt adoption of adequate bylaws;
  •   Acceleration of decision-making process;
  •   To provide all the legally required documents before construction of regional landfills;
  •   To find a way of providing guarantees on loans by the cantonal or entity governments, for municipalities which are not credit worthy;
  •   Involvement of the private sector through PPP;
  •   Sorting and recycling of waste at landfills;
  •   Primary separation of waste where there are technical and financial conditions for that.

 

CONCLUSION

It is necessary to ensure proper business environment in order to establish a sustainable SWM system in a way that utility companies have stable sources of income from the activity.
Only after that can be created realistic plans for future investments and further development of communal infrastructure, plans which will ensure the proper and sustainable treatment of waste in BiH.

 

Dragisa Marjanovic, President of BASWA, BiH

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